Shafiq R Khan

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Historical introduction of Jaat land & Jat

Jaatland (German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the mainland part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. Its terrain is relatively flat, with low hills and peat bogs. It has an area of 29,775 km² (11,496 square miles) and a population of 2,491,852 (2004).
Much of the peninsula is occupied by the Kingdom of Denmark. The southern portion is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein, possession of which has passed back and forth between the Danes and various German rulers, with Denmark most recently reclaiming North Schleswig (Nordslesvig in Danish) by plebiscite in 1920.
The largest cities in the Danish part of the Jutland Peninsula are Århus, Aalborg, Billund, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Randers, Kolding, Ribe, Vejle, Viborg, and Horsens.
The five largest cities in Schleswig-Holstein are Kiel, Lübeck, Flensburg, Neumünster, and Norderstedt, although Lübeck and Norderstedt are arguably not in Jutland.
INDIAN JAAT LAND & Jats
Sindh is a province of Pakistan. It is named after Sindhu gotra jats. Descendants of Maharaja Sindhu are Sindhu gotra jats. Sindhu river is also after Sindhu gotra. Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [1] Sindh has been ruled by Balhara, Nehra, Panwar, Hala and Rai gotra of Jats.
Migration of Jats from Sindh to Rajasthan and eastern Punjab (now Haryana)
Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. [2] [3] The Ghaznavid poet, Farrukhi calls the Jats (Zatt in Arabic) as the Indian race. [4] These Arabic/Persian accounts find support from the early fifth century inscription which documented the the Indianized names of the Jat rulers, [5] such as Raja Jit-Jit Salindra-Devangi-Sumbooka-Degali-Vira Narindra- Vira Chandra and Sali Chandra. Furthermore, the Mujmat ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chiefs of the Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat [6] [7]. These textual references further strengthened the view of O'Brien, who opines that the names and traditions of certain Jat tribes seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan. [8]
However, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [9]Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode. [10] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab. [11] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[12]Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan. [13] In the seventh century the Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang witnessed their settlement along the flat marshy lowlands which streches to some thousand li. [14] Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran. [15] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region. [16] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[17][18]
Before the invasion of sultan Mahmud (1027), they had firmly established in the region of Multan and Bhatiya on the banks of Indus River. [19][20] Alberuni mentions the Mau as the abode of Jats in Punjab, situated in between the river Chenab and Beas.[21] By the 7th century, the whole of Indus basin was populated by a large population of Jats. The Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang refers that 'there are several hundreds of thousands families settled in Sind. [22] Obviously these unnamed people were the Jats. [23] The Chachnama stratified these large population of Jats, as 'the western Jats' (Jatan-i-gharbi) and 'the eastern Jats (Jatan-i-Sharqi),[24] living on the eastern and western side of the Indus River. The chronicler s further classified them as 'The Jats living on the banks of the rivers (Lab-i-daryayi)[25] and the Jats living in plain,desert (Jatan-i-dashti); and 'the rustic Jats' (rusta'i Jat) living in villages.[26] Professionally, they were classified on the basis of their habitats, as boatmen and maker of boats, those who were living in the riverside. [27] However Jats of country side were involved in making of swords; as the region of Deybal was famous for the manufacture of swords, and the Jats were variously called as teghzan (holder of the swords).[28] The rustic people were appointed by the Chach and the Arab commanders as spies (Jasus) and the caravan guide (rahbar). They used to guide the caravans on their way both during day time and at night. [29][30]
In political heirarchy, the early fifth century inscription refers to them as a ruler of Punjab, part of Rajasthan and Malwa. [31]It further highlights their sovereign position with high sounded epithet as Sal, Vira, and Narpati (the Lord). [32] In the military hierarchy, the Chachnama placed them high on the covetous post of Rana. During the war they were brought against enemy as soldiers. In Dahir's army all the Jats living in the east of Indus River stood marshalled in the rear against the Arab commander Muhammad Bin Qasim. [33] They were also involved in palace management, thus Chach (King of Sindh) appointed them as his bodyguard (pasdar).[34]
The legendry reference about the Jats and Meds in Majmal-ut-Tawarikh, the first Persian account of the 11th century (1026), [35] involving the mythological figures can not be regarded as a historical fact but would imply that the people designated as Jats were present in Sind at the time of war of Mahabharata. [36]
Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. [37][38]The Ghaznavid poet, Farrukhi calls the Jats (Zatt in Arabic) as the Indian race.[39] These Arabic/Persian accounts find support from the early fifth century inscription which documented the Indianized names of the Jat rulers, [40] such as Raja Jit-Jit Salindra-Devangi-Sumbooka-Degali-Vira Narindra- Vira Chandra and Sali Chandra. Furthermore, the Mujmat ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chiefs of the Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat. [41][38]These textual references further strengthened the view of O'Brien, who opines that the names and traditions of certain Jat tribes seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan. [42]
According to Dr. Raza, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [38]Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode.[43] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab.[44] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[38]Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan.[45]
Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran.[46] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region.[47] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[38][48]
Thakur Deshraj mentions about the Buddhist Mauryan Jats rulers’ Rai Dynasty. He says that Rai was their title and their capital was at Aror which used to lie on the banks of the Indus River. Rai Meharsan II had a war with Badshah Nimroz of Iran in which he was killed. After him Rai Sahasi II became the king. When Rai Sahasi II fell ill, he called his minister to see the letters. The minister sent his munshi Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of Chach influenced the king and he appointed Chach to look after the palace. This way he got free entry into the palace. Chach developed illegal relations with the queen Suhanadi. Chach conspired with the Rani Suhanadi and killed Raja Sahsi Rai II and married with the queen and became ruler of Sindh starting a line of Brahmin ruler ship. [49]
Chachnama gives us comparative detailed information about the Jats of lower Sind (especially of Brahmanabad) in relation to Rai Chach and Muhamad bin Qasim. It says that after the subjugation of the fort of Brahmanabad Rai Chach humiliated the Jats and the Lohanas and punished their chiefs. He imposed stern and disgraceful regulations on them. [50], [51]
Chachnama does not specify the causes of this unusual treatment but it is not difficult to surmise them. Resentful of loss of their state, external interference, and sensitive to autocracy the self-governing Jats have, from earliest times, mostly showed an instinctive attachment to democratic ways.[52], [53], [54] They were indifferent to the rigidity and exclusiveness in socio-religious structure and generally had a natural apathy to the monarchial form of the government, facts which gradually came to the forefront in the Hindu society under the hegemony of the Gupta Kings and thereafter. [55], [56], [57] In such a state of affairs, Chach, a high caste Brahman might have harboured a feeling of abhorrence for the defiant unorthodox Jats. ], [58]
We have a positive knowledge about the prevalence of Buddhism at that period in the Indus Valley, [M. Habib, “The Arab Conquest of Sind”, Islamic Culture Jan,1929], in which the Jats formed the bulk of the population. Hence it is not unlikely, that the Jats had definite leanings towards Buddhism, which was more agreeable to their ways and practices, which are reflected in the book by by Dr. Dharma Kirti, a modern Buddhist. [59] , [60]
It is also likely that the years long [61] stubborn resistance by Jats and others to Chach during the latter’s siege of Brahmanabad provided him the immediate provocation for adopting the repressive measures. [62]
Chachnama refers to the Jats again at the time of Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sind. Following a query from the conqueror about the position of the Jats under Chach and Dahir, Sisakar, the minister of the fallen King, apprised him of the restrictions imposed upon them. The minister added that it was incumbent upon them to supply escorts and conduct parties and serve as guides. If any injury befell a person on the road they had to answer for it. The minister went on that these people have the disposition of savages and always rebelled against their sovereign....Having heard this, Qasim retained the same regulations against the Jats [63] of the eastern areas but not against those of western, who probably as mercenaries, had joined the invader against the oppressive Dahir. [64], [65]
Kamil-ut-Tawarikh notices the Jats seizing upon the roads of Hajar and plundering the corn of Kaskar. They had planted posts in all directions towards the desert. At the orders of the reigning Khalifa, Alif bin Isa marched against them (219 A.H. – 834 AD). He was busy suppressing their chief Muhammad bin Usman for seven months. After killing many of the Jats, Ajif is said to have carried twenty seven thousand of them (including women and children) to Baghdad. [66], [67]
Fatuh-ul-Buldan alludes to the Jats having sway over the territory of Kikan. Amran, the governor of [[Sind], (sometimes after 221 A.H. – 836 AD) attacked and subjugated them. [68], [69]
Tabkai-i-Akbari writes that Mahmud of Ghazni undertook his seventeenth expedition in 417 A.H. against the Jats (of the region of the Jud hills) who had molested his army on its return from Somnath. Mahmud is said to have organized a fleet of 1400 boats, while Jats could gather 4000 boats (or 8000 according to some). A naval fight ensued between the two at Multan, in which the Jats were drowned. The rest were slain. [70]
Tarikh-us-Subuktigin describes that two or three thousand mounted Jats attacked the Ghazanvide commander Tilak (425 A.H. – 1034 AD) “chiefly for the purpose of seizing his property and money”, when he was perusing the rebel, Ahmad Nialtigin in the lower Punjab. They carried away his son and subsequently killed Ahmad also. The Jats returned his son and the head of the deceased only after getting a portion of the promised reward. [71], [72]
Taj-ul-Maasir refers to the rising of the Jats of Haryana (588 A.H. 1192 AD) under their leader Jatwan, following the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Jatwan besieged the Muslim garrison at Hansi. Hearing about it, Qutb-ud-Din hurriedly moved against the Jats. Jatwan raised the siege to confront Qutb-ud-Din, but was beaten after a sanguinary fight. We are told that in samvat 1252 (1195 AD) a meeting of Sarva Khap Panchayat (Federal clan council of the Jats and other kindred people of Upper Doab, Haryana and neighbourng areas) was held in a forest between the villages of Bhoju and Banera under the chairmanship of Rao Vijay Rao of the village, Sisauli. This meeting decided among others to raise a big militia “to defend the Sarva Khap area against a suspected attack by Muhammad Ghori and to protect the area from loot and plunder. [73], [74], [75]
Th Jats rose again when Timur invaded India. Malfuzat-i-Timuri testifies to his satisfaction over killing 2000 Jats of village Tohna near Sarsuti. He found them “demon like”, “robust”, “marauding” and “as numerous as ants, and locusts”. [76], [77] We learn that in order to hold deliberations over the problem of his invasion, a Sarva Khap Panchayat meeting was held in samvat 1455 (1338 AD) in forest of Chugama under the president ship of Dev Pal Rana. It passed the resolutions that they should “vacate the villages, sending the children and women to the forests and that the able-bodied persons should take up arms and destroy the army of Timur. [78], [79] The Panchayat militia harassed the forces of Timur, while they were advancing from Meerut towards Haridwar. In the process the former lost 6000 men. [80], [81]
Another invader Babar found the Jats inhabiting a tract between Mil-ab and Bhera mountains. He remarks:
“If one goes into Hindustan the Jats and Gujars always pour down in countlesss hordes from hill and plain for loot in bullock and buffalo…When we reached Sialkot, they fell in tumult on poor and needy folks who were coming out of the town to our camp, and stripped them bare. I had the silly thieves sought for, and ordered two or three of them cur to pieces”. [82], [83]
It is said that in response of Rana Sanga’s call a Jat militia of 5000 from the upper Doab and another from the Brij participated in the battle of Sikari against Babar. [84], [85]
Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi speaks of one redoubted Jat chief named Fateh Khan who ravaged the country of Lakhi Jungle and the road from Lahore to Panipat. Haibat Khan, the governor of the Punjab, crushed Fateh Khan and his associates. [86], [87] The Jats late opposed, to their worth, Nadir shah (at Karnal) and Ahmad Shah Abdali (at Manupur). These examples suffice to show their tendency of opposing the foreign invaders. K.R.Kanungo rightly remarks:
"They (the Jats) have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed the same obstinate and steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat". [88], [89]
The traditional accounts of the Jats record that on many occasions the Sarva Khap Panchayat of the Jats and others met to express its deep resentment against the administrative oppression, unjust restrictions and humiliating exactions on ground of religious discrimination. In some cases they reportedly resolved to oppose the Muslim administration in case the oppressive measures were not withdrawn. [ Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.), 6,8-9,12,14], [90]
Haryana
Me with a jat man in Haryana
Migration from Sindh
As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[38]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the North-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[106] By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota, they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[107] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[38]The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[108]
When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[109] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[38]Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi.[110]
Me with a Jat youth in his farm

Haryana Haryana (Hindi: gj;k.kk ] gfj;k.kk ) is a state in north India. It was carved out of the state of Punjab in 1966. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north and Rajasthan to the west and south. Eastern border to Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh is defined by river Yamuna. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of Haryana is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab. The cities near Delhi, particularly Gurgaon, Faridabad and Bahadurgarh (one of the oldest industrial townships in Haryana, Hub for the largest footwear park in the country are emerging as major hubs for the information technology industry. There is also an established steel and textile industry. Haryana is also home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero Honda Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. The name itself means 'Hari ka Desh' or the land of Lord Shiva. There is mention of ganas is in the form of attendants of Shiva in the story of creation of Virabhadra and destruction of Daksha in Hindu mythology. The story goes: One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omitting only Shiva. Shiva's first wife was Sati and daughter of Daksha Prajapati. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, created Vīrabhadra who bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3] In Sanskrit language applying the yaṇa sandhogs rules we find that Hari + Ānā = Haryānā. Examples of yaṇa sandhi are: इति+आदि = इत्यादि हरि+ आणा = हरयाणा Let us provide more facts about Haryana from ancient literature. We can transliterate from हरयाना in Sanskrit to Harayānā in English. Its sandhi is as under: हर + याना = हरयाना Harayānā = Hara + yānā Here Hara means Shiva and yānā is path or the vehicle explained as under from text on (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yana_(Buddhism)) Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli) refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice. In Buddhism and Hinduism, both yāna and mārga (road or path) express the metaphor of spiritual practice as a path or journey. Ancient texts in both religions discuss doctrines and practices associated with various yānas. In Buddhism, yāna often augments the metaphor of the spiritual path with the idea of various vehicles that convey a person along that path. The yāna / mārga metaphor is similar to the Chinese image of the Tao (path or way) but Indian and Chinese cultures appear to have evolved such similar metaphors independently. Vedic origins of -yāna as a spiritual journey The use of yāna to use as a name or to refer to a spiritual journey may date to the Ṛgveda, possibly composed circa 1500 BCE, whose 10th Mandala makes several references to devayāna, (translators usually render this as the "path of the gods" or similar) and one reference to pitṛyāna ("path of the fathers"). The first verse of the Ṛgveda's burial hymn (10.18) translates approximately as "O Death, take the other path, which is distinct from the way of the gods" (paraṃ mṛtyo anu parehi panthāṃ yaste sva itaro devayānāt). The "other path" is the pitṛyāna, referred to in hymn 10.2 and alluded to in 10.14 and 10.16. Thus Haryana name has linkages with both Buddhism and Vedic religion. The present day Haryana is the region where, along the banks of the River Saraswati, the Vedic Civilization began and matured. It was here that the Vedas were written, as the Aryans chanted their sacred Mantras. Replete with myths and legends, Haryana's 5000 year old history is steeped in glory. It was here that Lord Krishna preached Bhagvad-Gita at the start of the battle of Mahabharat. It was on this soil that saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharat in Sanskrit. Before the Mahabharat war, a battle of ten kings took place in the Kurukshetra region in the Saraswati valley. But it was the Mahabharat War, approximately in 900 BC, which gave to the region worldwide fame. Mahabharat knows Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka, land of plentiful grains and Bahudhana, the land of immense riches. The word Hariana, occurs in a 1328 AD Sanskrit inscription kept in the Delhi Museum, which refers to the Haryana region as The heaven on earth. Later the Mughal, Babur, defeated the Lodhis in the first battle of Panipat in the year 1526. Another decisive battle was fought in Panipat in 1556, establishing the reign of the Mughals for centuries to come. Taking advantage of Humayun's death, Hemu had marched to Agra and Delhi and occupied it without difficulty. In response, Bairam Khan (Akbar's guardian) marched towards Delhi. Both the armies clashed in the second battle of Panipat. Hemu was in a winning position when a stray arrow struck him in the eye. He fell unconscious causing panic among his troops. The tide of the battle turned and the Mughals won the battle. Towards the middle of the 18th century, the Marathas had control over Haryana. The intrusion of Ahmed Shah Durrani in India culminated in the third battle of Panipat in 1761. Marathas' defeat in this battle marked the end of their ascendancy and the decline of the Mughal Empire, leading to the advent of the British rule. In 1857, the people of Haryana joined the Indian leaders in the 1857 Revolt against the British Government. By the end of June, 1857, most of the present Haryana region was liberated from the British. But the British managed to put down the rebellion in November, 1857 by bringing in additional forces from outside the area. Indian history is replete with tales of heroism of the highest order and in this context; the historic significance of the battles of Panipat and Kurukshetra in Haryana cannot be ignored by any means. The sacrifices of Haryana's brave soldiers have played a very important role in maintaining the territorial and sovereign integrity of our nation. The new state which emerged as a separate political entity of the Indian Union on November 1, 1966, is considered to be the cradle of rich Indian cultural heritage. In terms of economic development too, Haryana has come a long way during the few past years. Pre-harappan and Harappan Culture Excavations of various archeological sites in Haryana, like Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehbad, Agroha near Hissar, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhigarhi) in Jind, Sites in Rukhi (Rohtak) and Banawali in Sirsa have evidence of pre-Harappan and Harappan culture. Findings of pottery, sculpture and jewellery in sites at Pehowa, Kurukshetra, Tilpat and Panipat have proved the historicity of the Mahabharat war. These places are mentioned in the Mahabharat as Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilpat), Panprastha (Panipat) and Sonprastha (Sonipat. Haryana has been the scene of many wars because of it being "The Gateway of North India". As years rolled by, successive streams of Huns, Turks and the Afghans invaded India and decisive battles were fought on this land. After the downfall of the Gupta empire in the middle of 6th century AD north India was again split into several kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab. It was after this period that one of the greatest King of ancient India, Harshvardhana began his rule. He became the King of Thanesar (Kurukshetra) in 606 AD, and later went on to rule the most of north India. In the 14th century, the Tomar kings led an army through this region to Delhi. An agrarian State Haryana is primarily an agrarian state. It is because of this the following saying is popular for Haryana: nslkW eksa nsl gfj;k.k] ftr nw/k ngh dk [kkuk In addition to the river Yamuna, seasonal rivers such as the Ghaggar, Markanda, and Tangri pass through the state. Numerous irrigation canals that cross the state, bringing water for irrigation from the perennial rivers of the Himalayas. The land is generally flat, covered with loamy soil and very suitable for agriculture. The southwestern area of the state is drier and sandier. There are some hilly areas, which form part of Shivalik Hills in the north-east and Aravalli Hills in the south. The climate is continental, with extremes of heat in summer. Monsoon winds bring adequate rainfall between July and September. Haryana has been the hub of social, cultural and religious activity in India, even before the time of Vedic Civilization. Given its unique geography, the state of Haryana was witness to the invasions of the Muslim rulers, battles of the Marathas and the Sikhs. Hindu saints, Buddhist monks and Sikh gurus have traversed Haryana, spreading their messages of universal love and brotherhood. The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 2, 10, 83,000, with 1, 13, 28,000 males and 97, 55,000 females. The population density is 477 people/sq km. Religion has always provided the main basis for the structure of the Haryana society. In ancient times, Aryan people followed the Vedic religion. Later on Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Sikhism influenced the people. Swami Dayanand's teachings greatly impressed the people and the Arya Samaj has a large following among Hindus of Haryana. In present day Haryana, Hindus are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%, Muslims 4.05% and Christians 0.10%. Hindus are divided into a number of castes like Jats, Brahmins, Ahirs, Gujars, Aggarwals, Arora Khatris, Sainis, Rajputs and Rors. Among them all, the Jats occupy a pre-eminent position in Haryana, being the largest group in the state. The artisan castes such as Telis (oil traders), Sunars (goldsmith), Lohars (blacksmiths), dhobis (launderers) and Nais (barbers) are found throughout the state, especially in villages. Jatland in Haryana state Actually Jatland is not an authorised or any formal region। But it the notion among the Jat community that any area or region which was dominated by them became the Jatland. In the medieval india which continued uptill the later modern india, some jats of this region remained under the riegn of some ruler dynesties. There was the domination of the jats. These regions under ruler dynasties are known by the following names: Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehbad, Agroha near Hissar, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhigarhi) in Jind, Sites in Rukhi (Rohtak) Banawali in Sirsa Pehowa, Kurukshetra, Thanesar (Kurukshetra) Tilpat and Panipat Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilpat), Panprastha (Panipat) Sonprastha (Sonipat) And these were the regions, where the jats ruled and therefore as a proof of their caste pride and history, called the jatland. In other words, wherever the jats had the dominated the society that region was called jatland. Thakur Deshraj has mentioned in his book on History of Jats “Jat Itihas” (Hindi) (1934) that the country Assyria gets its name from Asiagh gotra Jats. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word ‘Asi’ meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on ‘Asi’ (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. The Asiaghs moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Europe. Those who settled in Jangladesh were called Asiagh and those who moved to Scandinavia were known as Asi. Jats entered Scandinavia around 500 BCE and their leader was Odin. James Tod considers Odin to be derived from Buddha or Bodan. The Asi Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious book of Scandinavia ‘Edda’ mentions that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Aryans known as Asi people and came to this land from Asirgarh. Asirgarh is a site of an ancient fort situated in Burhanpur district of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh, India. Thakur Deshraj further quotes Scandinavian writer Mr Count Johnsturn who says that Scandinavians came from India. According to James Tod Scandinavia is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Skandhnabh’. The above view is further supported by Mangal Sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), (ISBN 81-85431-08-6) that the people of Scandinavia were Jats and they founded Jutland as their homeland. The Jats are spread throughout Haryana. After 1931 the census data are not recorded on caste basis. So the exact population of Jats can not be given. According to an estimate Jats constitute 22 per cent of the State population — the largest single community in Haryana.
Deepak with Jat women

 [http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/mar052005/n24.asp] As per this norm the population of Jats comes out to be 4638000. Dalits constitute about one fifth of the population. The Muslims in the state are mostly Meos and are concentrated in the Mewat region. There are three categories of Muslims in Haryana. The Asharf or Sharaf (noble) form the higher caste, the Ajlaf (base or mean) is the middle with Arzal (lowest of all) coming at the end. There are Muslim Rajputs as well as converted Muslims. The Sikhs generally live in Ambala, Kurukshetra and Karnal districts. Sikhs too have their own castes like Jat Sikhs, Aroras etc. More than 70% of the population is depended on agriculture for their livelihood. And a major part of the land is under the influence and domination of the Jats. Therefore the whole economics of Haryana depends upon them. Some special regions of the state constitute the jatland which are under the domination of jats. This region mainly constitutes Jind, Kurukshetra and Rohtak etc.

References
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2. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
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4. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
5. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit. Vol.I, p. 622.
6. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
7. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
8. O'Brien, Multan Glossary, cited Ibbetson, op.cit., p. 105
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10. Elliot, op. cit., Vol.I, p.133
11. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Firista, Gulsan-i-Ibrahimi, commonly known as Tarikh-i-Firishta, Nawal Kishore edition, (Kanpur, 1865), Vol.I, p.35
12. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
13. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.I, p. 622-23.
14. Beal, op. cif., II, p. 273; Walters, op. cit., II, p. 252.
15. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
16. Encyclopedia of Islam, vol.II, p.488
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18. Chachnama, pp. 165-66; Alberuni, Qanun al-Mas'udi, in Zeki Validi Togan, Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni; Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. 53, pp.16,72; Abu Abudullah Muhammad Idrisi, Kitab Nuzhat-ul-Mustaq, Engl. translation by S.Maqbul Ahmad, entitled India and the Neighbouring Territories, (I.eiden, 1960), pp.44,145
19. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
20. Zainul-Akhbar, p.191
21. Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni, p.30
22. Beal, Vol.II,p.273
23. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
24. Chachnama, pp.98, 117,131
25. Zai'nul-Akhbar, p.191; Tarikh-i-Firishta, Vol.I,p.35
26. Chachnama, pp.104,167
27. Zai'nul-Akhbar, p.191; Tarikh-i-Firishta, Vol.I,p.35
28. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.37, Chachnama pp.33,98
29. Chachnama, pp.33,163
30. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
31. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
32. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit. Vol.I, p. 622-23.
33. Chachnama, p. 133
34. ibid.,p.64
35. Majmal-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, I, p. 104-105
36. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 7
37. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 38.7 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
39. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
40. Inscription No.1, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. (1829-1832) James Tod and William Crooke, Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi (1990), Vol.II, Appendix. pp. 914-917.
41. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
42. O'Brien, Multan Glossary, cited Ibbetson, op.cit., p. 105
43. Elliot, op. cit., Vol.I, p.133
44. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Firista, Gulsan-i-Ibrahimi, commonly known as Tarikh-i-Firishta, Nawal Kishore edition, (Kanpur, 1865), Vol.I, p.35
45. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit. Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
46. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
47. Encyclopedia of Islam, vol.II, p.488
48. Chachnama, pp. 165-66; Alberuni, Qanun al-Mas'udi, in Zeki Validi Togan, Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni; Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. 53, pp.16,72; Abu Abudullah Muhammad Idrisi, Kitab Nuzhat-ul-Mustaq, Engl. translation by S.Maqbul Ahmad, entitled India and the Neighbouring Territories, (I. Eiden, 1960), pp.44,145
49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p.700-701
50. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 150-151
51. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
52. Bingley’s (Sikhs 11-12)
53. U.N.Sharma, Jaton Ka Navin Itihas (Jaipur: 1977), 38
54. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
55. K.P.Jayaswal, Andhakar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi:Samvat 2014, p.391
56. R.C.Majumdar, Corporate life in India, 165-167
57. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
58. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
59. Dr. Dharma Kirti, Jat Jati prachhanna Baudh hai, 1999 Ed. New Delhi
60. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8, f.n.
61. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 147
62. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
63. Ibid.,187
64. Mirza Kalich Beg’s translation of Chachnams quoted by Qanungo, Jats, 28
65. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
66. Kamil-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, II, 247-248
67. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
68. Fatuh-ul-Buldan in Elliot, I, 128
69. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
70. Tabkai-i-Akbari quoted in Elliot, II, Note D 477-478
71. Tarikh-us-Subuktigin in Elliot, II, 132-133
72. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
73. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.) in possession of Chaudhary Qabul Singh of Shoram Muzaffarnagar]
74. Habibullah, Foundation of Muslim rule in India, 62,81 (footnote)
75. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
76. Malfuzat-i-Timuri and following it Zafarnama in Elliot, III, 248-249, 491
77. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
78. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),13
79. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
80. Ibid.
81. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
82. Memoieres of Babar, quoted by Qanungo, Jats,33
83. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
84. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),15
85. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
86. Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi in Elliotr, IV, 398-399
87. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
88. Qanungo, Jats,30
89. G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
90. G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
91. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 263
92. Mahabharata, II, 27, 22-26
93. Elliot, Early History of India, Vol. I
94. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jatvans, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001
95. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jatvans, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001
96. Ram Swaroop Joon: History of Jats, India
97. Ram Swaroop Joon: History of Jats, India
98. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
99. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr. Vir Singh, 2003, p.17
100. Elliot, I, 383
101. Elliot, I, 448
102. Elliot, II, 247
103. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
104. Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
105. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705
106. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
107. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit. Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
108. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
109. Chachnama, p.166
110. Hasan Nizami, Tajul-ma'asir, Fascimile translation in ED, Vol. II, p.218

Me in Kurukshetra mandir

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