Shafiq R Khan


Different Stages of Trafficking

Stage 1: Pre Trafficking (Source/Origin)

Recruitment can occur as act of physical violence by kidnapping the victim, or by threat, or with consent through deception, when a good job possibilities are promised or implied, or by other forms of coercion such as dept bondage, Abuse of authority plays a role when parents agree to sell a child or when anyone who exercises a form of authority over the victim agrees to or is involved in trafficking.

Stage 2: Transit

Transit may also be forced as in the case of kidnapping or travel under threat. Agents and brokers may restrict the women ‘s girls freedom of movement by confiscating their passports or identity cards, thus restricting their independence and ability to return home . Sexual harassment and rape may also occur during or after transportation , sometimes, the trafficked person s are sold several times to middlemen or other agents, before they reach their final destination . A considerable amount of official involvement (of police and immigration authorities)in the trafficking process has reported.

Stage 3: Destination

Work/ living condition at final destination: Trafficked persons are forced or deceived with the aim of exploiting them in abusive , sometimes slavery-like condition . Many boys and girls find themselves. Working against their will in exploitative condition in a variety of job s, such as domestic work, factor work or in the sex industry. They lose their right to decide freely over their own destiny and are subject to violence, abuse and other forms of coercion. Some of the women and children get trafficked into sex work , but others are trafficked into other exploitative situations, such as organized begging domestic work as servants, servile/ forced marriage, factory work in the garment, agricultural or fishery industries, and criminal activities.

Stage 4: Rescue & Rehabilitation

In this stage, rescue and recovery operations are conducted through police raids with the help of individual or voluntary organizations which may planned or unplanned. Many agencies network in carrying out such raids on brothels, factories, homes to rescue children who have been forced into exploitative work. After rescue they was usually taken to police station for initiating legal procedures and kept till they can be admitted officially to a Shelter Home, Rehabilitation Center or sent back to the family.

Rehabilitation of the rescued child involves the creating of a safe, secure environment which fosters health, self respect, dignity and emotional healing in the child by providing a variety of services aimed at promoting physical, psychological and integration of the child.

Stage 5: Reintegration

Many trafficking women ans children actually want to return home if they have the chance in this case we speak of voluntary return. Other are sent back against their wisher, for instance after they have been arrested as illegal immigrants; in that case we speak of involuntary return or deportation by immigration police.

Whether they go back voluntarily or not, trafficked women and children usually need support when they return to their family, community or country. Return and reintegration form a difficult process in which the returnees may face psychological, family related health, legal and financial problems.

Some may have illness, injuries, HIV infection, and malnutrition. They may be afraid of police or other officials. Fear of some kind of retaliation or persecution is not uncommon. If these problems are not solved, and the return exploited is not supported, it is likely that they will be abused and exploited again, sometimes even trafficked once more. The rehabilitation and reintegration work involves identification process (who is she, where does she belong, family tracing – if it exists and where) family assessment (what kind of needs they have and if they can provide after care), family reunification, travel and follow up of reintegration through visits.

People who can bring about the Change
Police - immediate action for cases of missing women and girl

Community – awareness about trafficking and unsafe migration, check-child marriage, ensure marriage and birth registration

_ specially focused scheme for the protection and development of the girl child and order to reduce her vulnerability
_ Government – special programs to address the address the economic stability of families from where the girls children are frequently trafficked

Some prevention and support strategies

- create awareness through public campaigns and integration with community development programs
- compulsory registration of births
- provide basic services such as education health care; alternate income generation programs, shelter
- setting up missing children’s booths in Panchyats
- providing viable livelihood options in source areas
- provisions and scope for safe migration
- advocacy and liaison with government
- media advocacy
- care and support for trafficked survivors including shelter, counseling etc
- programs for economic rehabilitation and skills up gradation
- training of police including border security; judiciary and other legal enforcement agencies
- prevention of re-trafficking


This modal explains how various factors impact the trafficked child to make her/him particularly vulnerable to her trauma, and the experience of the trauma – its severity and duration. The following are some of these major factors that determine the trauma experience.

External factors include

1. Trafficking event: the experience of being trafficked, sold, abused, tortured, repeatedly sexually exploited, the betrayal family of friends, the uncertainty of future – all add up to making the trauma experience what it is for the child.

2. Support network: the child who has some social support in the form of friends, relatives, understanding staff, counselor of concerned people from the community will experience less trauma impact than a child who has no such support systems

Internal factors includes-

3. stress vulnerability: this refers to the combination of biological make up and psychological aspects of the child, the physical, emotional, mental attributes that interact to determine how vulnerable a child will be under adverse and stressful conditions. This includes genetic factors, personality characteristics as well as environmental influences.

4. trauma perception: How the child perceives and perceives the trauma event(trafficking), what meaning and significance she attaches to its and her own perception of the events impacts on her all determines how negatively she will think and feel it is (E.g. is it bad or horrible, unbearable?)

5. Coping behaviors : these refer to certain behavioral patterns by the child to face the trauma event (trafficking) which would include both positive coping behaviors (showing ability to face challenging or threatening situations in a positive manner, resilience) an negative coping behaviors (aggression, withdrawal, substance abuse, suicide attempts). Positive coping behavior reduces the impacted of trauma experience, while negative coping worsens it over time. Past experiences of copping positively to trauma, give confidence to face current trauma of crises better.

The combined effects of all the above facture impinge on the child to determine the experience of the trauma, as minima, moderate of severe.

The trauma experience in turn has its impact on the developmental process of the trafficked child –

- physical and sexual development (see annex 1)

- social development (see annex 1)

- emotional development (see annex 1)

- cognitive development(see annex 1)

The various development impact of the trauma experience leads to certain characteristic trauma process as

· physical and sexual impact can lead to sexualization of the child that in turn determines her Health and sexuality.

· Social developmental impact in turn leads to marginalization and deprivation that determines the kind of social and personal identity the child will develop.

· Impact on emotional development can lead to Traumatization and Stigmatization ( see Handout) , process in the turn affects her/his overall Behavior.

· Cognitive or mental functioning that is impacted cas land to the development of Commodification process(seehandout), which in turn affects the worldview of the child (e.g ‘this world is a bad place;Ihave no choice’)

Hence ultimately the health, sexuality, Identity, Behavior and Worldview that result as a consequence of the above process and impacts are those factors that determine the child’s overall well-being.

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